Wednesday, 8 February 2012


10. Production value and voice over talent.
9. Distinctiveness of the offering.
8. Effective use of the interplay between emotion and logic.
7. Articulation.
6. Simplicity.
5. Use of sound elements to enhance the message.
4. Authenticity.
3. The offer.
2. The opening attention grabber.
1. Benefit orientation.

St. John’s College Course Information Sheet
Course Title: Communications Technology- Broadcast Journalism Course Code: TGJ3MB    Credit Value: 1 Department: Technology    Prerequisite: none Level: Open    Teacher: Mr. S.Dobrowolski Grade: 11
Course Description:
This course enables students to develop knowledge and skills in the areas of graphic communication, printing and publishing, audio and video production, and broadcast journalism. Students will work both independently and as part of a production team to design and produce media products in a project-driven environment. Practical projects may include the making of signs, yearbooks, video and/or audio productions, newscasts, and documentaries. Students will also develop an awareness of related environmental and societal issues and explore college and university programs and career opportunities in the various communications technology fields.
How This Course Supports Expectations for the Catholic School Graduate:
The role of Technological Education in the Catholic faith community is to enable students to develop and utilize their gifts and talents while creating products that benefit others in a way that models gospel values. The focus of the curriculum is to enable students to become critical and innovative problem-solvers who question the use of resources and understand the implications of technological innovations. An emphasis on process as well as results ensure that students create products and provide services that recognize God-given responsibility to respect the dignity and values of the individual and the community.
Enduring Understandings. By the end of this course, student will understand that:
•    Knowledge of computers and skill in their applications are essential for success in education, work and life
•    Design in technology is a systematic process used to initiate and refine ideas, solve problems and maintain systems
•    Technological progression is driven by a number of factors including individual creativity, innovation and human wants and needs.
The overall expectations for this course can be found at Course Resources and Materials:
The Ontario Curriculum, Grades 11 & 12, Technological Education. Communication Technology : Today and Tomorrow (Sanders) Photo & Digital Imaging (Klassey) Graphic Communications Today (Ryan,Conover)
Video Communication & Production (Stinson) Exploring Digital Video (Rysinger) Complete Guide to Digital Video& Audio (Cooper) Student News Network- Online resource
Internet Campus- Online resource

 Broadcast Journalism(film & dv) Terms

"Action" is called during filming to indicate the start of the current take. See also cut, speed, lock it down.

Aspect Ratio:
(Aspect, Academy Ratio) A measure of the relative sizes of the horizontal and vertical components of an image. "Academy Ratio" is 1.33:1, or 4:3.

(Continuity Error) The degree to which a movie is self-consistent. For example, a scene where an actor is wearing a hat when seen from one camera angle and not from another would lack continuity. A person is often employed to check that continuity is maintained since re- shooting embarrassing lapses in continuity can be prohibitively expensive. See also continuity report. In modern times, some continuity errors can be corrected through digital compositing.

Depth Of Field:
(DOF) A measure of the range along a camera's line of site in which objects will be in focus. See also aperture, shutter speed.

(Dir, Helmer) The principal creative artist on a movie set. A director is usually (but not always) the driving artistic source behind the process, and communicates to actors the way that he/she would like a particular scene played. A director's duties might also include casting, script editing, shot selection, shot composition, and editing. Typically, a director has complete artistic control over all aspects of the movie, but it is not uncommon for the director to be bound by agreements with either a producer studio. In some large productions, a director will delegate less important scenes to a second unit.

Director Of Photography:
(DP, DoP) A cinematographer who is ultimately responsible for the process of recording a
scene in the manner desired by the director. The Director of Photography has a number of possible duties: selection of film stock, cameras, and lenses; designing and selecting lighting, directing the gaffer's placement of lighting; shot composition (in consultation with the director); film
developing and film printing.

(Docu) A non-fiction narrative without actors. Typically a documentary is a
journalistic record of an event, person, or place.

Executive Producer:
(Executive in Charge of Production) A producer who is not involved in any technical aspects of the film making process, but who is still responsible for the overall production. Typically an executive producer handles business and legal issues. See also associate producer, co-producer, line producer.

Letter Boxing:
 (Letterboxed, Letterbox) As the aspect ratio of movies are rarely the same as the aspect ratio of a television screen, when showing movies on TV it is necessary to make sacrifices. "Letterboxing" is a video mastering process whereby a film source with an aspect ratio greater than that of the video master (4:3 for NTSC/PAL and 16:9 for HDTV) is transferred to the video master in such a way that no film image is cut off to the left or the right, requiring the addition of (usually) black bars at the top and at the bottom of the image so that it entirely fills the other words, the technique of shrinking the image just enough so that its entire width appears on screen, with black areas above and below the image. The advantage of this technique is that the film images are shown as originally intended by the film's creators, not interfering with their shot composition and artistic intentions. The disadvantage is that the entire image must be shrunk, which makes viewing on smaller TVs more difficult. Contrast with pan and scan (for DVD, also anamorphic widescreen).

Non-Linear Editing:
The computer-assisted editing of a movie without the need to assemble it in linear sequence. The visual equivalent of word processing

The standard for TV/video display in the US and Canada, as set by the National Television Standards Committee, delivers 525 lines of resolution at 60 half-frames per second. See also PAL and SECAM.

(Phase Alternating Line) A standard for tv/video display, dominant in Europe and Australia, which delivers 625 lines of resolution at 50 half-frames per second. See also NTSC and SECAM.

The chief of a movie production in all matters, except the creative efforts of the director. A producer is responsible for raising funding, hiring key personnel, and arranging for distributors. See also associate producer, co-producer, executive producer, line producer.

(Production Date) In the movie industry, this term refers to the phase of movie making during which principal photography occurs. Popularly, however, "production" means the entire movie project. See also pre-production and post-production.

Post Production:
(Postproduction, Post) Work performed on a movie after the end of principal photography. Usually involves editing and visual effects. See also production, pre-production.

(Preproduction, Pre) Arrangements made before the start of filming. This can include script editing, set construction, location scouting, and casting.

Story Board:
A sequence of pictures created by a production illustrator to communicate the desired general visual appearance on camera of a scene or movie

Stop Motion:
A form of animation in which objects are filmed frame-by-frame and altered slightly in between each frame.

An advertisement for a movie which contains scenes from the film. Historically, these advertisements were attached to the end of a newsreel or supporting-feature, hence the name. Doing this reduced the number of reel changes that a projectionist would have to make.


•Broadcast Journalism
•Chapter 9
•Where is the news?
•Wire Services
•Satellite Feeds
•The Internet
•Police Radio
•Wire Services
•Wire services are worldwide news organizations that feed stories to networks and local stations.  They originated with telegraph technology, but currently use satellites and internet delivery systems.  The Associated Press is the largest wire service.
•Satellite Feeds
•Satellite feeds or “newsfeeds” are soundbites and clips distributed by networks through closed-circuit connections to local affiliate stations.
•Video News Releases (VNRs) consist of free information distributed by interest groups trying to gain attention for their cause.
•The Internet
•You know what this is and how to use it!  The most important thing to consider when using internet sources to find or follow up on stories is SOURCING!  Make sure you gather your information from reputable websites.  We’ll talk more about this in class.
•Newspapers are an excellent starting point for broadcast journalists because (unlike most broadcast media: TV, radio) newspapers focus on journalism to the exclusion of entertainment programming.
•Using Newspapers
•A technique that broadcast journalists often use is “advancing” the story:  Following up an a newspaper story with fresh information and/or a local perspective.
•Professional broadcast newsrooms are constantly monitoring police frequencies in search of breaking stories related to crime or catastrophe.
•Beyond crime and catastrophe, however, news radio, can provide a good starting point for a more in-depth investigative report.
•Informants are people you get information from.  They can be professional “stringers” (freelance reporters), amateur “tipsters” who call in, or people who are otherwise very close to a developing story (e.g. “deep throat” in the Watergate scandal).
•Gaining informants is critical to good broadcast journalism.
•The Assignment Editor and his/her staff generally serve as the gatekeepers of information of broadcast news.  They distribute the assignments and decide what is newsworthy.
•Building Stories
•Assignment editors often construct stories based on national or international news.  In other words, they seek to provide a local angle on emerging national or global trends.
•Building Stories
•Example: How has the housing crisis effected residents of New Jersey?  Interview a family that has lost their home or a landlord who has seized the opportunity to buy homes.


What is news?
- News is information on any current/significant events

¤ timeliness
¤ proximity
¤ exceptional quality
¤ possible future impact
¤ prominence
¤ conflict
¤ the number of people involved or affected
¤ consequence
¤ human interest
¤ pathos
¤ shock value
¤ titillation component

News Source
  • the local reporter's primary sources
  • news services such as the Associated Press
  • media outlets, such as newspapers, radio and TV stations
  • press releases provided by corporations, agencies, and special interest groups 

    Microwave, Satellite,

    Fiber Optic, and

    Internet (IP) Transmission

    >>It does little good to have a great news story or program segment if you can't transmit it back to a local station, cable news outlet, or network to broadcast. In this module we will cover a variety of point-to-point video and audio transmission approaches.
     flyaway units


    Photography Basics

    Ever wonder what it is that actually makes a camera work? This tutorial will cover the inner workings of a camera, and introduce you into photography basics and the expansive world of taking better photographs.
    To take beautiful photographs you do not need an expensive camera and a bag full of equipment. What is important is the photographer’s ability to see his/her surrounding and use knowledge and personal feel for the subject.
    Being the first article in a series, this lesson is meant to only cover the basics of photography. The idea with this series is to get people more interested in photography, awaken creativity and hopefully help people enjoy this hobby even more. The community here at Tutorial9 is an important part of this series and I would love to hear your feedback and questions.

    An introduction to Photography

    The word “photography” is French but is based on Greek word and literarily means “drawing with light“. That’s what photography is all about, without light — no photograph. The art of photography is basically seeing and balancing the light.
    The illustration to the left shows the path the light travels from the object to the sensor (or film in non-digital cameras).
    First the light needs to go through the lens, which is a series of differently shaped pieces of glass. If the focus is good then the light will meet on the sensor.
    The aperture is placed inside the lens and is basically an opening that controls how much light reaches the sensor.
    On most modern cameras the shutter is placed inside the camera body. This piece of mechanics is what controls how long time the sensor is exposed to the light.
    The sensor is a very sensitive plate where the light is absorbed and transformed into pixels. As you can see on this illustration, the image the sensor picks up is actually upside down, just like our eyes sees the world, the processor inside the camera then flips it.


    The aperture sits inside the lens and controls how much light passes through the lens and onto the sensor. A large aperture lets through very much light and vice versa. Knowing how the aperture affects the photograph is one of the most important parts of photography — it affects the amount of light, depth of field, lens speed, sharpness and vignetting among other things. I will talk more about these things in later parts of this series.
    F-numbers, a mathematical number that expresses the diameter of the aperture, are an important part of understanding how the aperture and exposure work. All f-numbers have a common notation, such as ƒ/5.6 for an f-number of 5.6. There are a set numbers of f-numbers that are used in photography, there are several different scales but the “standard” full-stop f-number scale is this:
    ƒ/# 1.4 2 2.8 4 5.6 8 11 16 22 32
    These are known as full-stop f-numbers. If you decrease the f-number with one full-stop, like ƒ/4 to ƒ/2.8, the amount of light that passes through will double. If you increase the f-number with one full-stop, like ƒ/5.6 to ƒ/8, only half the amount of light will reach the sensor.
    There can be several f-numbers between the ones above — depending on what scale is being used. The most common one is a 1/3 scale, which means that every third step is a full-stop, and thus giving you two settings between every full-stop. For example between ƒ/8 and ƒ/11 you will find ƒ/9 and ƒ/10. This can be rather confusing at first, so here’s a short reminder:
    A higher f-number = a smaller aperture = less light

    A lower f-number = a larger aperture = more light


    The shutter is what controls how long the sensor is exposed to the light. The longer the shutter is open the more light can be captured by the sensor. A fast shutter speed will result in “freezing” a moving object and a slow shutter speed will let you capture the motion of a moving object.
    There is a scale of stops for the shutter speeds just like for the aperture, below are the full-stops.
    1/1000 s 1/500 s 1/250 s 1/125 s 1/60 s 1/30 s 1/15 s 1/8 s 1/4 s 1/2 s 1 s
    And just as with the aperture, the shutter speed is often on a 1/3 scale, giving your two steps in between every full-stop. For example between 1/60s and 1/125s you will find 1/80s and 1/100s.
    The two primary factors which control exposure are shutter speed and aperture. We will cover these things in greater detail in other lessons.

    See [LINK TO EXPOSURE TUTORIAL] for an article on how exposure works.


    The ISO speed (the name comes from the International Organization for Standardization) is a measure of the film speed, or its sensitivity to light. With digital cameras the ISO affects the sensor instead of the film, but the principal is the same. A low ISO speed requires a longer exposure and is referred to as slow, a high ISO speed requires less time to give the same exposure and is therefore referred to as fast. One step in the ISO equals one full-stop, so the ISO is not on a 1/3 scale — film can be found with 1/3 ISO speeds, but it’s uncommon in the digital world. These are the most common ISO speeds.
    ISO 50 100 200 400 800 1600 3200
    On 35mm film, a film with high ISO speed had much more grain than a slower film — but the modern sensors don’t create the same grain with high ISO speeds. Instead it creates noise. The digital noise is not as favorable as the film grain and can destroy a photo if it’s too visible (the same goes with the grain, but it’s effect was more subtle and often more liked).
    If light is no problem, then always use a low ISO number but if you’re indoors with bad light or other conditions when you find the combination of aperture/shutter not to be enough the ISO speed can be a great asset. New digital sensors are constantly developed and the noise levels with high ISO speeds are decreasing with every new release.
    Ready to check out our basic and advanced photography tutorials?





    What does print journalism supply that broadcast journalism does not?a level of depth, context and sheer information
    How does broadcast journalism convey its message?through the power of dramatic video and engaging audio, offers emotional appeal, realism and immediacy
    What do critics say about broadcast journalism?it treats news as entertainment, evading complex issues while sensationalizing conflicts, crimes, car chases, etc.
    What do critics say about print journalism?newspapers aren't entertaining enough-- they're full of dull-but- important government stores and serious-but-boring social issues that seldom connect with modern Americans
    the radio news director...serves as a one-person newsroom, writing local stories, reworking wire copy and serving as the anchor who reads news on the air.
    know "sound bites"short audio clips
    know "readers"short text for radio anchors to deliver
    know "wraps"longer packages that incorporate sound bites and the reporter's own narrative in radio journalism
    length of typical radio story20 seconds of narration and 10 seconds of sound bites
    how to TV reporters start their days?with news meetings
    what does the assignment desk do?it monitors who covers what out in the field
    How do TV journalists work with their photographers?they work side by side since video is essential in most stories.
    What is a package?reporters return to the radio station for some stories and review the video, write a script, and assemble a (__)
    How long is a typical TV news story?It consists of four or five sentences lasting 40 seconds
    How fast do broadcast journalists read?generally 150-180 words per minute
    what is the slug? (radio)name of the story along with the writer's initials and date
    How are numbers written?for radio the way they are pronounced- for broadcast they are spelled out
    How are acronyms written?With hyphens in between letters to differentiate...
    What is a cut/actuality? (radio)indicates a prerecorded quote
    What does SOT stand for and what is it?"Sound on tape" and it means that the anchor has stopped talking and viewers are now watching the senator's sound bite.
    What does TRT stand for?"Total Running Time"
    What are the 10 ways that broadcast newswriting differs from traditional news writing?1) Use a friendlier, more conversational tone; 2) keep it short.simple and easy to follow; 3) Don't structure stories in the inverted-pyramid form; 4) use the present tense as often as possible 5) contractions are acceptable, even for hard news stories; 6) attributions and quotes require different treatment; 7) add phonetic pronunciation when necessary; 8) use punctuation to help -- not hinder -- the delivery; 9) avoid abbreviations and symbols; 10) numbers:round them off and spell them out
    What are some tips for creating radio news stories?- Write to your bites; - Make every word count; - focus on people; - read your stories aloud; - record natural sounds, too; - paint word pictures
    How to sound like a pro...- record yourself; -adjust your delivery; - remember; -study the pros; -practice
    Anchorthe person hosting a newscast
    Actuality (cut; sound bite; bite)the recorded voice of someone in the news, or sound from a news event. These include statments from publi cofficials, interviews with eyewitnesses, commeents from experts--event he shouts of an angry mob
    Natural Sound (ambient sound)sounds recorded to capture the flavor of a news scene--birds singing, crowds cheering, planes landing
    Scriptthe written version of a news story
    Voicera news story by a reporter that doesn't use actualities. When it's delivered by an anchor reading a script, it's called a reader.
    Lead-inWords that introduce some element in the story -- identifying the source in a cut, for instance.
    LiveNot prerecorded; usually refers to stories filed from a news scene
    Wrap (package)A story that begins and ends with a reporter's voice "wrapped" around one or more actualities or cuts
    Intro (anchor intro)the lead to a reporter's wrap, read by an anchor
    In-cueThe first words of a cut or wrap
    Out-cuethe final words of a cut or wrap
    Tag (sign-off; sign-out; lockout; standard outcue)the closing line where reporters say their names and station call letters
    TalentReporters, anchors, disc jockeys -- those paid to appear on the air (as opposed to engineers or office staff)
    TeaseA brief headline or promo for a coming story
    Advice for beginning television news reporterscollaborate; write to the video; don't overload with facts; engage viewer's emotions; look professional
    video interviewing tipsfind a location; get to the point; maintain eye contact; rephrase and re-ask questions; watch for good sound bites; avoid "stepping on" sound bites; remember to shoot cutaways
    four common story formatsreader; voice-over; voice-over to sound on tape; package
    AudioSound heard on TV
    VideoImages seen on TV
    Sound bitea recorded comment from a news source, suually audio and video
    Trackthe aduio recording of a reporter narrating a story
    B-roll (cover)Video images shot at a news scene that are later used to illustrate a sound bite or reporter's track that was recorded separately
    Stand-upa shot of a reporter at a news scene talking into the camera; if it's live it's called a live shot
    packagea story that's prepared by a reporter, usually taped, featuring the reporter's track, one r more sound bites and often a stand-up
    Anchor intro (lead-in)the lead, read by an anchor, that introduces a reporter's package
    Bridgea stand-up that moves the story from one angle to another
    TossWhat's said as one anchor or reporter hands off to another
    On cam (o/c)on-camera; the image that's being telecast
    VO, voice-overwhen the anchor speaks over video, or when a reporter narrates over video cover
    SOT, sound-on-tapea recorded sound bite played during a story
    Rundwonthe order in which stories will appear during a newscast
    Promptera device that projects a news script in front of the camera lens for an anchor to read
    Talking heada person being interviewed; a dull sound bite of someone just talking

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